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Each widget has a canvas, i.e. a place to draw on. The canvas is a group of drawing instructions that should be executed whenever there is a change to the widget’s graphical representation.
You can add two types of instructions to the canvas: context instructions and vertex instructions. You can add instructions either from Python code or from the kv file (the preferred way). If you add them via the kv file, the advantage is that they are automatically updated when any property they depend on changes. In Python, you need to do this yourself.
In both cases, the canvas of MyWidget is re-drawn whenever the
size of the widget changes.
For an in-depth look at how Kivy’s graphics are handled, look